We generally learn that a noun names a person, place, thing, or idea.
Nouns for People
Here are examples of a noun naming a person:
Notice that in English some nouns for people’s names and titles, start with a capital letter. These are called proper nouns. Notice that some other nouns require words like an, a, and the before them. These are called articles.
Nouns for Places
Other nouns name places. Many of these are proper nouns, too, particularly names of countries, cities, states, mountains, bodies of water:
New York City
But other nouns for places are common nouns and do not need a capital letter:
Nouns for Things
Nouns can also be things, physical objects, stuff.
Some things are also proper nouns, if the are famous and unique:
The Hope Diamond
The Mona Lisa
War and Peace
Nouns for Ideas
Finally, nouns often name ideas, abstract concepts. These are like things, but they are not physical, you cannot touch or see them.
Singular and Plural forms of Nouns
In English we change the form of a noun to show if we are talking about just one thing (singular) or many things (plural). For most nouns, the plural form simply adds -s to the end of the word. For example, we say a car or one car, but we say two cars, three cars, many cars.